Half of the immigrants, who are new have Canadian experience
Before becoming permanent residents, more and more immigrants are living, studying and working in Canada.
In recent years, a greater number of immigrants are gaining permanent residence with the aid of Canadian study and work experience.
According to Statistics Canada, the number of temporary foreign workers and students increased exponentially between 2000 and 2018. Over half, i.e., nearly 59% of new economic-class immigrants in 2018 were former temporary foreign workers, which is an exponential growth from just 12% at the starting of the millennium.
More and more temporary foreign workers also got their permanent resident status with the help of more number of Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs) and the launch of the Canadian Experience Class (CEC) in 2009. The CEC itself received 20% of all the economic-class principal applicants in 2018, while the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) allowed 25% of them. PNPs issued the largest share of Permanent Residencies at a staggering 46%.
These conclusions come from the second part of a five-part StatsCan study series in partnership with Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). The readings examine the growing importance of temporary foreign workers in the labour market results of new immigrants. Only three have been released so far.
Landing in a country as a worker or student and becoming a permanent president is called “two-step” immigration selection. In this process, students or skilled migrants first get temporary residences and then have their credentials evaluated by Canadian employers. The temporary residents apply for immigration and are selected based on the criteria described in federal or provincial programs.
The first study finds that two-step immigration can improve the match between immigrant skills and labour market demands. Employers can directly evaluate the skills and elusive qualities of the temporary worker. It also found out that the coronavirus pandemic has highlighted possible issues linked to the dependence on temporary foreign workers, such as labour supply uncertainty, and poor working conditions for employees.
The second part documents the development of a two-step immigration selection since 2000. Between 2000 and 2018, the number of temporary foreign workers went uphill from about 60,000 to 429,300.
The third part looks at two-step immigration and labour market outcomes. The study found out that more number of immigrants had positive annual earnings in the first full year after immigration from 2000 to 2016. The increase in employment was associated with the increasing number of immigrants who had worked in Canada before at medium ($20,000 to $50,000) to high annual earnings (over $50,000).
These conclusions suggest that immigrants with Canadian experience generally find more employment offers and make more annual incomes. The Canadian government’s initiatives to generate more pathways for immigrants with Canadian experience have helped improve these outcomes.